Centrophenoxine, also known as meclofenoxate, is a nootropic supplement that has previously been sold as a prescription drug under the brand name Lucidril. It is thought to be able to help protect the brain against aging, age related side effects and from damage caused by environmental toxins, and is widely used for this purpose.
As a cholinergic, Centrophenoxine is a frequently stacked with other nootropics such as Racetams and Noopept.
There are many cognitive benefits related to this well known nootropic. In this Centrophenoxine review we’ll learn what it is, how it works, what benefits to expect, and what side effects you might experience. Then you can decide if Centrophenoxine is the right nootropic for you.
Some definitions that will help you better understand this article if you’re new to nootropics.
Neurotransmitter – chemical messengers that facilitate communicate across the brain.
Acetylcholine – is a neurotransmitter within the brain that carries out an essential role in multiple levels of cognitive functionality, and is known to be particularly important for the memory formation process. It affects the autonomic nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, the central nervous system, and the somatic nervous system. By elevating acetylcholine levels, doctors have been able to slow degeneration and treat conditions like Alzheimer’s.
Choline – is the basic form of acetylcholine, and our bodies transform choline into acetylcholine.
Choline is found in a lot of the foods that we consume. Eggs and shrimp are both high in choline, and other dietary sources include, liver, beef, cauliflower, tofu, almonds, and peanut butter. The recommended daily intake of choline for adults is in the region of 425-550 mg per day, and it is estimated that as much as 90% of the population have a choline-deficient diet. Unless you’re eating at least 5 eggs each day or consuming large amounts of other choline rich foods, your brain may not be getting the choline it needs to stay healthy and productive. Without choline, your brain can’t create the acetylcholine it needs. Low choline levels are often linked to headaches.
Cholinergic – a substance that delivers or enhances the action of choline. The brain’s cholinergic system produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Dimethylaminoethanol – DMAE is a substance that occurs naturally in foods and is also synthesized in the brain. As a supplement It has been marketed for its claimed benefits relating to cognitive enhancement, anti-aging, and skin rejuvenation. The structure of DMAE is similar to that of choline but there is a large debate as to the ability of DMAE to act as precursor to acetylcholine like choline. The reason for this debate is that it is thought that once DMAE crosses the blood brain barrier, it is impossible to convert into choline. The presence of DMAE in the brain cell membrane provides increased protection against free radical damage.
Antioxidant – molecules that prevent the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that damage cells.
What is Centrophenoxine?
As a nootropic supplement, it has proven to be a more efficient and bioavailable form of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). Centrophenoxine is a combination of PCPA (parachor phenoxyacetic) and a synthetic version of DMAE that has been formulated for improved absorption and an enhanced ability to cross the blood brain barrier. It is a fat soluble compound that is metabolized in the liver.
Centrophenoxine is a well known and well respected nootropic that has been extensively tested in clinical trials and research studies. It’s been in use for over fifty years after initial development in 1959 by scientists at the French National Scientific Research Center.
Originally created as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of age-related cognitive decline, this supplement is still prescribed as a treatment for age-related memory loss in some European countries. In the US Centrophenoxine is sold as a dietary supplement and is available without restriction. It is most frequently used for its cognitive enhancement properties. in some European countries, such as Germany, Hungary, and Austria, as well as Japan, it is a prescription drug.
Centrophenoxine is classified as a cholinergic. Choline is the precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Degenerative brain conditions like Alzheimer’s and senile dementia are characterized by low levels of acetylcholine within the brain.
Cholinergics can enhance, inhibit, or mimic the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Centrophenoxine raises acetylcholine levels, leading to some powerful cognitive benefits which include improved concentration, perception, memory, and overall cognitive function.
It’s this cholinergic action that makes it an effective nootropic in its own right, and a powerful enhancer when used in combination with other nootropics.
Nootropics in the racetam class act by stimulating the production of acetylcholine and draw heavily on the brain’s choline supplies. To achieve optimum results, racetams are best stacked with a choline source and with an acetylcholine enhancer like centrophenoxine.
Centrophenoxine has also been shown to have antioxidant and neuroprotectant properties, and is able to reverse the damaging effects of toxins and free radicals in the brain, which helps to slow cognitive decline. It may also act as a mild stimulant and antidepressant.
CENTROPHENOXINE BENEFITS AND EFFECTS
Centrophenoxine is known to offer a wide range of benefits for both brain and body:
Centrophenoxine has long been known for its considerable abilities as a memory performance booster. It does this by boosting the production of acetylcholine. This neurotransmitter is most closely tied with cognitive function in general and memory in particular.
ENHANCED FLUID INTELLIGENCE
Centrophenoxine can enhance fluid intelligence. Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve new problems, use logic in new situations, and identify patterns.
Crystallized intelligence on the other hand, is the ability to use learned knowledge and experience. Over time this knowledge gets more and more stable, like a crystal.
When you’re in the process of learning a new task, you usually need to use fluid intelligence to begin with, but once that task is learned, you will have a greater reliance on your crystallized intelligence.
Centrophenoxine can help to improve your ability to learn new languages and other new skills.
IMPROVED OVERALL BRAIN FUNCTION
Centrophenoxine is considered a neuro energizer because it stimulates glucose uptake and oxygen absorption. The additional oxygen and glucose increase its nootropic effects, making learning easier and faster, thoughts clearer, and all of the brain’s functions more efficient.
Many users find that centrophenoxine has a mild stimulant effect. Although it boosts energy without creating the jittery feelings that accompany amphetamines or other stimulants, its effects on energy levels are strong enough to disrupt regular sleep patterns if taken late in the day. Some users find that their mind is too occupied with thoughts to quieten down and allow them to sleep.
Research has found that Centrophenoxine is a potent free radical scavenger and powerful antioxidant that removes toxins, repairs damaged cells and protects the brain from age-related deterioration.
MOOD AND MOTIVATION
Users report that centrophenoxine has a noticeable but mild antidepressant effect, improving mood and motivation.
HOW DOES CENTROPHENOXINE WORK?
Despite the age of this compound and decades of research, scientists are still unclear on the exact mechanisms of Centrophenoxine.
While it is known that Centrophenoxine has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and increase the amount of acetylcholine, the exact method by which the process takes place remains a matter of speculation.
Some researchers believe that it breaks down into choline in the brain and then is converted to acetylcholine.
Even though the exact mechanism of action is a mystery, there is no doubt that centrophenoxine is a cholinergic that increases production of acetylcholine. This ability to increase acetylcholine levels is the main way that centrophenoxine acts as a nootropic, but it works to enhance cognition in other ways as well.
In addition to its ability to increase acetylcholine production, centrophenoxine also enhances oxygen uptake and better glucose absorption in the brain, which results in many cognitive benefits. The increased oxygen and glucose uptake provides more energy to the brain and makes it function more efficiently, leading to improved focus and concentration.
Better oxygen and nutrient absorption is also believed to be responsible for the improvements in fluid intelligence and problem solving ability. It is further believed to be largely responsible for the improved mood and enhanced energy experienced by users.
Another theory for Centrophenoxine’s mode of action is the ability to increase production of RNA which has been shown increase the rate of protein synthesis in cells. It also leads to an increased rate of protein turnover which can help to explain many of the observed anti-aging benefits.
Yet another theory that attempts to explain how Centrophenoxine works has been called the “membrane theory of aging.” According to this theory, as cells age, their ability to remove the mineral potassium decreases, and this leads to an accumulation in the cells.
On the sides of nerve cell walls little pumps remove potassium from the cell to ensure proper concentrations, but these pumps become less effective with aging.
This also leads to lipofuscin buildup. Lipofuscin is a waste material present in aging cells. One of the earliest discoveries from animal studies showed that Centrophenoxine is very effective at reducing lipofuscin levels. Lipofuscin accumulates over a lifetime and in the studies was shown to comprise as much as 30% of the cell volume in aged animals.
As cells accumulate lipofuscin they become increasingly less functional, and they may die rapidly when a critical threshold of this waste product accumulation is reached.
Animal studies have shown that Centrophenoxine was able to remove this cellular waste. In mice significant reductions occurred within 6 weeks. One study with aged rats found that Centrophenoxine treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a 28-42% reduction in brain lipofuscin levels.
Animals whose memory and learning abilities were tested in these studies were found to benefit from Centrophenoxine. Aged animals whose elevated lipofuscin levels were reduced by Centrophenoxine had their memory and learning abilities restored to a level comparable to much younger animals while the untreated high lipofuscin control animals did not.
Both human and animal studies have shown that high levels of lipofuscin correlate with poor cellular health while low levels are associated with healthy cellular function.
Lipofuscin is also responsible for age spots on the skin.
A typical dose when taken alone or in a stack, is 250 mg. A daily dosage between 500mg -1000 mg is considered both safe and effective for healthy adults seeking to benefit from centrophenoxine’s cognitive and nootropic effects.
Higher doses may be required in order to maximize its anti-aging effects, but before exceeding the recommended dose it is advisable to consult a medical professional.
Anecdotal reports suggest that older people with significant intellectual decline may need increased doses with three to six 250mg tablets taken per day. These doses should be taken with breakfast and lunch, in order to avoid the sleep disturbances that could occur as a side effect of its mild stimulant properties, if the supplement was taken later in the day. Because centrophenoxine is fat-soluble it is recommended that it should be taken with food.
With all supplements, it is advisable to start with lower doses and the increase the dose if that amount isn’t enough to produce the effects that you are looking for. Experts recommend taking 250 mg of Centrophenoxine to begin with.
Some centrophenoxine products specifically recommend cycling off the supplement for a couple of days each week.
Choline is considered to be an essential component of every nootropic stack.
As a choline ‘source’, Centrophenoxine enhances the effects of other nootropics, particularly the racetams. Because racetams draw on choline sources in the brain, it is advisable to include a cholinergic when taking them to ensure that have enough ‘raw ingredient’ to draw on.
Centrophenoxine also serves to reduce the headaches, which are a common side effect of low choline levels when taking Piracetam.
Other popular nootropics commonly stacked with Centrophenoxine include Noopept and Aniracetam.
If you do decide to stack Centrophenoxine with a racetam, the recommended dose is 1 Centrophenoxine dose for every 2 recommended racetam doses.
CENTROPHENOXINE SIDE EFFECTS
Centrophenoxine is safe and nontoxic at every level of recommended dosage and is generally very well tolerated.
Many users have reported mild and minor side effects, including nausea when taken on an empty stomach, headache, gastrointestinal issues, and sleeplessness.
Some have also found that they experience brief, mild depression when they stop taking the supplement.
In most cases the side effects were associated with high doses and reducing the amount taken eliminated the unwanted side effects.
Centrophenoxine is not a suitable supplement for people with high blood pressure, depression, mania, seizure disorders, epilepsy or Parkinson’s disease as too much acetylcholine may worsen these conditions.
Centrophenoxine may cause birth defects. Women who are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding should avoid using this nootropic.
Uses do report that Centrophenoxine tastes bitter or tart and very unpleasant. Users have also reported a rash and irritation by taking Centrophenoxine sublingually (under the tongue), so it’s probably wise to avoid that method of administration.
WHERE TO BUY CENTROPHENOXINE
Centrophenoxine can be purchased online via Amazon or specialized nootropics vendors. Buying from Amazon is convenient and familiar. You can purchase 300mg capsules in a 50 count bottle from the Double Wood Brand for $20. This provides an overall quantity of 15mg of product.
But the most cost effective way to purchase Centrophenoxine is via a dedicated nootropics vendor.
Nootropics Depot supplies 25g, 50g, and 100g jars of powdered Centrophenoxine for $11, $19 and $33 respectively. They also supply 500mg capsules in both 90 and 180 counts, for $30 and $50 respectively. They offer free shipping on orders over $50.
Powder City supplies 250mg capsules in 90 count, for $17. Their powder is available in 25g, 50g and 100g pouches, for $10, $18 and $32 respectively. They offer free shipping on orders over $35.
Peak Nootropics supply powder in 50g and 100g pouches for $20 and $35 respectively.
All three vendors are trusted suppliers within the nootropics community.
(prices correct Nov 2016)
“Terrific! Centrophenoxine was recommended by Dr. Richard P. Brown, a clinical pharmacologist/psychiatrist, in his talk on Awakening from Alzheimer’s”
“Improvement in memory. Very good product.”
“I’ve noticed my memory isn’t as sharp as it used to be. Literally, I‘d walk down the steps or go to the kitchen, get distracted and forget what I was going to do. I’m often retracing my steps… I can honestly say I noticed a difference in my memory…it’s better! Also, I’m more alert and focused which is an added benefit for a working mom.”
“When I take one, I quickly notice that my focus becomes improved, that I am quicker to recall and remember words and events. It’s not some subtle difference, at least not if you are paying attention. I really feel smarter when I take this, like I am a better version of myself.”
And the not so good:
“I noticed nothing at all. Took the whole bottle, dosed as directed.”
“I did like these that much for some reason it did not work for me with memory nor focus.”
“Ok but couldn’t really tell a difference.”
Centrophenoxine is a clinically tested safe and effective supplement that has significant benefits for memory, learning ability, fluid intelligence, and concentration. It also has a known anti-aging mechanism through its ability to remove waste products from cells and to regulate cellular potassium levels.
Because of its ability to boost acetylcholine levels, centrophenoxine acts to improve a number of cognitive functions and it enhances the effects of other nootropic supplements like the racetams which draw heavily on the brain’s supply of choline.
When purchased in bulk Centrophenoxine is an affordable supplement that can be obtained without prescriptions or any restrictions.
This nootropic is certainly one to consider if you are a little older and looking for anti aging and cognitive benefits, or at any age (adult) for improved memory and focus.